Guidelines on Written Assessments

Submitting Your Work

Formative and summative submission dates can be found in individual programme handbooks.

All written assessments should be word-processed using double-line spacing,  font size of 11pt or 12 pt and in a font that is easy to read, e.g. Arial, Verdana, Tahoma. All pages should be numbered. To assist with “blind marking” please do not put your name or ID number anywhere in your submission.

Written work must stay within the specified word count and there will not be an upper percentage margin. Markers will stop marking at the point where the limit has been reached.

Details of how to submit assessments as part of your programme may be found in individual programme handbooks.

Guidance on how to use BART may be found here. Please see here for the full BART handbook. Turnitin guidance may be located here.

All work must be submitted by 1.00pm on the submission date.

It is your responsibility as a student to ensure that all work arrives by the submission deadline.

Citing and Referencing

Psychology has adopted the American Psychological Association (APA) conventions as the standard for citations and references. As such references must be completed in APA style. It is important that programme members are familiar with the precise details of citing and referencing. We use the standard of ‘a publishable article’ and we expect citations and references to adhere to that standard.  The information given here is based on the latest edition of the Publication Manual of the APA. We would encourage you to consult these guidelines and copies are kept in the library, or can be obtained online at There are many web sites providing summaries of the APA Style Guide (a Google search will identify these).

Reference Section or Bibliography

The main conventions are as follows: 

Journal Articles

A typical citation would be (Ablon & Jones, 1999) and the reference would appear as:

Ablon, J. S. & Jones, E. E. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 6-7.

Another example would be:

Kasen, S., Cohen, P., Skodol, A. E., Johnson, J. G., Smailes, E., & Brook, J. S. (2001). Childhood depression and adult personality disorder - Alternative pathways of continuity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 231-236.


A typical citation would be (Bateman, Brown & Pedder, 2000) and the reference would appear as:

Bateman, A., Brown, D., & Pedder, J. (2000). An introduction to psychotherapy. (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.

Another example would be:

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed. Revised ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Chapters in a Book

If you have read a chapter in an edited book you would put the following citation in the text: (Aveline, 2006). In the reference section you would list it as:

Aveline, M., Strauss, B., & Stiles, W. B. (2005). Psychotherapy research. In G. Gabbard, J. S. Beck, & J. Holmes (Eds.), Oxford textbook of psychotherapy (pp. 449-462). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Citations in the Main Text

Citing in text means referring to author(s) with the dates (e.g., Eells, 1997) so that the reader can then go to the References and find them in more detail. 

Eells, T. D. (1997). Handbook of psychotherapy case formulation. New York: Guilford Press.

Reference citations for two or more works within the same parentheses. List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname. Separate the citations with semicolons. For example: Several studies (Balda, 1980; Kamil, 1988; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990). Exception: You may separate a major citation from other citations within parentheses by inserting a phrase such as see also, before the first of the remaining citations, which should be in alphabetical order. For example: (Minor, 2001; see also Adams, 1999; Storandt, 1997).

There are many different instances of citing and referencing (e.g., Internet resources, personal communication, conference papers, case examples, and you are advised to consult the Publication Manual for these.